Pre-school education is the first stage of basic education in the lifelong education process, being complementary to the educational action of the family, with which it must establish close cooperation, favoring the formation and balanced development of the child, with a view to their full insertion in society as an autonomous, free and solitary being.
Importance of Pre School Education
The creativity and the desire to learn are two of the most important life skills. In children they are innate and with unlimited potential, which must be promoted and developed from Pre School education. Of all the stages of the human being, childhood constitutes the most important stage . The correct development of a child has a direct impact on her general growth and on the adult she will become.
Children love to learn, so they need an environment that supports learning and the emotions that go with it, such as joy, curiosity, or wonder. Without an atmosphere that motivates these sensations, the development of the mind is not as effective.
Education in the first stage of life
Early childhood is defined as a stage of life that spans from gestation to age eight. Some of the most important processes they go through are the following:
- The greatest neuronal development occurs.
- Capacities for effective relationships are determined, which at other stages of life are difficult to build.
- Basic language skills and fine and gross motor skills are developed.
- It gives recognition of itself, of the physical and social environment.
- His character is formed.
During this stage, the child develops in four main areas, each area of development interacts with the others so that an orderly evolution occurs. The areas of child development are:
- Language area
- Physical area (gross motor and fine motor)
- Cognitive area
- Socio affective area
Within human communication there are four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The first language skill a child learns is to listen, then to speak, later to read, and even later to write.
Language activities respond to a basic need of children at this age. Songs, onomatopoeias, rhymes, poems, riddles, tongue twisters, tales, stories, puppets, dramatizations and conversations are part of the work for the development of oral language and it is necessary that they are very present in day by day. Through these experiences children develop language and expand their vocabulary. The rich vocabulary will help them understand, interact and communicate in the environment in which they live. Once the child has developed the ability to hear, speak, and reproduce different sounds, he is ready to identify and pronounce letter sounds. What later, will take you to the reading of small words.
It refers to the child’s control and movement over his body. It is divided into gross motor development and fine motor development. The thick motor area is concerned with changes in body position and the ability to maintain balance. Activities are included that allow working with the body schema, that is, how the child sees her own body, its different parts and what she can do with it. This is accomplished through outdoor games with movements that include all parts of her body, such as crawling, jumping, running, rolling, climbing, among others.
The fine motor aspect includes the movements of the hands and eyes. It is the coordination between what the eye sees and the hands touch. They are the small actions that occur, using the thumb and index finger. Through these exercises, children develop minor muscles. Fine motor activities contribute to the ability to read and write in later years, due to the internalization of movements from left to right and from top to bottom. In addition, they help the development of attention, follow instructions, reasoning and problem solving.
Learning occurs through relationships, relationship with God and with the world created by him and relationships with other people. Learning is through the five senses. Children learn through ideas that are conveyed and triggered by what they see, what they hear, what they feel, and through what they experience. Knowledge is developed by making connections between it all. It is of utmost importance that adults provide small opportunities for observing, relating, experiencing, knowing and learning from the world around them.
Within the cognitive area are the stimuli that the child needs to understand his environment, at the same time that he adapts to new situations through thought and interaction with objects. We know that before the child learns the symbols of things, he must learn about the things themselves, that is, spend direct time with the learning object. This is where the little ones learn to observe, ask, solve and understand in a meaningful way.
Child socialization focuses on the child’s social and emotional capacities; which form her character, determine her personality and the interaction with her surroundings.
During the first seven years the character of the children is formed, it is a very important stage in which they need to grow up in a safe environment, of trust, respect and love. The exercises that have to do with the activities of the house, of the garden, of the care of oneself and simple social acts are fundamental for its development. They help them maintain order, give them a sense of security, develop their independence, and form good habits.
The socio-affective area has to do with the child’s ability to identify and express his feelings or emotions. Art and craft activities support little ones to communicate their inner world. Art is the language that will make the child express himself through different elements, where creativity and imagination have the most important role. Children become better people by expressing their inner world, in a way that also encourages them to create, learn, and innovate.
The Ideal Space for Pre School Education
The role of the school is to provide the means, resources and instruments that facilitate children’s learning to lay the foundation of knowledge and skills that they will need in the future. Today presents a challenge that Pre School education, or any other level, has not faced before: technology and digitization in the world.
Taking this reality into account, the space and materials with which children must learn must develop 21st century skills , which include social, emotional and technological aspects.
Likewise, teachers must be trained to implement educational technology solutions in the best way ; This is through play, since for Pre School children the world is a giant playground with no limits for curiosity and where they are eager to exploit their creativity.
Development of Pre School children
The Pre School child learns the social skills necessary to play and work with other children. As you grow older, your ability to cooperate with more peers increases. Although children ages 4 to 5 may be able to participate in games that have rules, these are likely to change frequently at the will of the dominant child.
It is common in a small group of Pre School children to see a dominant child emerge who tends to command others without much resistance from other children.
It is normal for Pre School-age children to test their physical, behavioral, and emotional limits. It is important to have a safe and structured environment within which to explore and face new challenges. However, Pre School-age children need well-defined limits.
The safety of Pre School children is of utmost importance.
Pre School children are highly restless and fall into dangerous situations quickly. Parental supervision at this stage is essential, as it is during the early years.
Falls are the leading cause of injury for Pre School children. Climbing exciting new heights, these kids can fall from playground games, from bicycles, roll down stairs, fall from trees, windows, and roofs. Close doors that give access to dangerous areas (such as roofs, attic windows, and steep stairs). Establish strict rules so that the child understands that these areas are outside her limits.
Children are born with intelligence and potential that cannot be limited. The little ones are not incomplete adults; they are adults in training. Our role as teachers and parents is to provide them with the means, resources, and instruments that facilitate their learning.
Children love to learn and are born with that love for learning, it is an essential part of human life. Children need an environment that supports learning; it is the feeling of love, joy, enjoyment, expectation, wonder and discipline. The environment is associated with learning. Without an environment that supports learning, the mind cannot develop its abilities.
Of all the stages of human development, childhood is the most important stage. The correct development of a child has a direct impact on her general development and on the adult she will become. This is why it is very important to recognize the need to invest in young children.
Infants have needs that must be adequately met to ensure optimal development. Parents and teachers are responsible for serving and meeting their needs during early childhood.
The early childhood is defined as a stage of life, ranging from gestation through eight. It is the stage in which girls and boys lay the foundations for the development of their capacities, abilities and potentials.